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Kalwaria Żmudzka – zapomniana fundacja biskupa Jerzego Tyszkiewicza

Czyż, Anna Sylwia

English Title: Kalwaria Zmudzka – the forgotten foundation of bishop Jerzy Tyszkiewicz

In: Lubos-Kozieł, Joanna ; Gorzelik, Jerzy ; Filipczyk, Joanna ; Lipnicki, Albert (Hrsgg.): Pielgrzymowanie i sztuka. Góra Świętej Anny i inne miejsca pielgrzymkowe na Śląsku. Breslau 2005 485-498 + Abb.

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Translation of abstract (English)

The Calvary Complex in Gordy (Zemaiciu, Kalvarija now Lithuania), in Zmudz, was founded by Bishop Jerzy Tyszkiewicz in 1642. The whole complex was under the protection of Dominican friars. This is one of the earliest, in fact the third, Calvary complex in Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth and the first in Lithuanian area. Kalwaria Zmudzka belongs to a group of the so-called great European Calvaries. The whole complex consists of 13 wooden chapels (Departing from Mother, Prayer in Olives Garden, The Cedron River, Judgment of Annas, Judgment of Kaifas, Judgment of Pilat, Judgment of Herod, Saint Veronica, Town Gate – the first fall, The third fall, Stripping of Christ’s Garments, Crucifixions, Finding the Holly Cross) and 6 stone pilgrimage chapels (Last Supper, Arrest of Christ, Town Hall – the final sentence of Christ, Meeting with Mother, Simon of Cyrene – the second fall, Sepulcher). Most of them descend from the baroque period, but this is the folk-culture baroque. The other two come from 19th c. (Prayer in Olives Garden, Town Hall – the final sentence of Christ). The architecture of all the chapels is rather simple. The most prominent and monumental one is the wooden chapel of Crucifixions (in shape of a Greek cross with the third-side close presbytery). The design of the whole foundations, Iike other Polish-Lithuanian Calvary complexes, is based on Adrichomius’s map of Jerusalem The structure aims at the reconstruction of Christ’s path in Jerusalem with a characteristic division into the Chapels of the Way of Lord’s Arrest (Mount of Olives, The Cedron River Valley, Mount of Zion) and the Chapels of the Way of the Cross Jerusalem’s gates and Golgotha). The chapels are Iocated along attractive routes of small mountainous and picturesque scenery. The whole pilgrimage concept has undergone a complex process of adjustment to the Jerusalem pattern and to the conditions of local scenery with the preservation of the topographical logic (necessary for the Calvary programme). The dominant elements in the whole complex are The Mountain of Olives, Golgotha and a church (two-tower facade) built by Augustyn Kossakowski in 1785-1822 (the previous two were wooden ones).

Document type: Book Section
Version: Secondary publication
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2011 13:24
Faculties / Institutes: Research Project, Working Group > Individuals
DDC-classification: Architecture
Controlled Subjects: Žemaiciu Kalvarija, Kalvarienberg, Wallfahrt, Architektur, Geschichte
Subject (classification): Architecture
Countries/Regions: East Europe
Collection: ART-Dok Central and Eastern Europe