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Interactive Segmentation, Uncertainty and Learning

Straehle, Christoph-Nikolas

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Interactive segmentation is an important paradigm in image processing. To minimize the number of user interactions (“seeds”) required until the result is correct, the computer should actively query the human for input at the most critical locations, in analogy to active learning. These locations are found by means of suitable uncertainty measures. I propose various such measures for the watershed cut algorithm along with a theoretical analysis of some of their properties in Chapter 2. Furthermore, real-world images often admit many different segmentations that have nearly the same quality according to the underlying energy function. The diversity of these solutions may be a powerful uncertainty indicator. In Chapter 3 the crucial prerequisite in the context of seeded segmentation with minimum spanning trees (i.e. edge-weighted watersheds) is provided. Specifically, it is shown how to efficiently enumerate the k smallest spanning trees that result in different segmentations. Furthermore, I propose a scheme that allows to partition an image into a previously unknown number of segments, using only minimal supervision in terms of a few must-link and cannot-link annotations. The algorithm presented in Chapter 4 makes no use of regional data terms, learning instead what constitutes a likely boundary between segments. Since boundaries are only implicitly specified through cannot-link constraints, this is a hard and nonconvex latent variable problem. This problem is adressed in a greedy fashion using a randomized decision tree on features associated with interpixel edges. I propose to use a structured purity criterion during tree construction and also show how a backtracking strategy can be used to prevent the greedy search from ending up in poor local optima. The problem of learning a boundary classifier from sparse user annotations is also considered in Chapter 5. Here the problem is mapped to a multiple instance learning task where positive bags consist of paths on a graph that cross a segmentation boundary and negative bags consist of paths inside a user scribble. Multiple instance learning is also the topic of Chapter 6. Here I propose a multiple instance learning algorithm based on randomized decision trees. Experiments on the typical benchmark data sets show that this model’s prediction performance is clearly better than earlier tree based methods, and is only slightly below that of more expensive methods. Finally, a flow graph based computation library is discussed in Chapter 7. The presented library is used as the backend in a interactive learning and segmentation toolkit and supports a rich set of notification mechanisms for the interaction with a graphical user interface.

Item Type: Dissertation
Supervisor: Hamprecht, Prof. Dr. Fred A.
Date of thesis defense: 23 July 2014
Date Deposited: 17 Oct 2014 07:12
Date: 2014
Faculties / Institutes: The Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science > Department of Computer Science
Subjects: 004 Data processing Computer science
Controlled Keywords: Bildsegmentierung, Maschinelles Lernen
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