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Expression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project

Flockerzi, Aline ; Ruggieri, Alessia ; Frank, Oliver ; Sauter, Marlies ; Maldener, Esther ; Kopper, Bernd ; Wullich, Bernd ; Seifarth, Wolfgang ; Müller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus ; Leib-Mösch, Christine ; Meese, Eckart ; Mayer, Jens

In: BMC Genomics, 9 (2008), Nr. 354. pp. 1-17. ISSN 1471-2164

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Download (2MB) | Lizenz: Creative Commons LizenzvertragExpression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project by Flockerzi, Aline ; Ruggieri, Alessia ; Frank, Oliver ; Sauter, Marlies ; Maldener, Esther ; Kopper, Bernd ; Wullich, Bernd ; Seifarth, Wolfgang ; Müller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus ; Leib-Mösch, Christine ; Meese, Eckart ; Mayer, Jens underlies the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Germany

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Abstract

Background: A significant proportion of the human genome is comprised of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). HERV transcripts are found in every human tissue. Expression of proviruses of the HERV-K(HML-2) family has been associated with development of human tumors, in particular germ cell tumors (GCT). Very little is known about transcriptional activity of individual HML-2 loci in human tissues, though. Results: By employing private nucleotide differences between loci, we assigned ~1500 HML-2 cDNAs to individual HML-2 loci, identifying, in total, 23 transcriptionally active HML-2 proviruses. Several loci are active in various human tissue types. Transcription levels of some HML-2 loci appear higher than those of other loci. Several HML-2 Rec-encoding loci are expressed in GCT and non-GCT tissues. A provirus on chromosome 22q11.21 appears strongly upregulated in pathologic GCT tissues and may explain high HML-2 Gag protein levels in GCTs. Presence of Gag and Env antibodies in GCT patients is not correlated with activation of individual loci. HML-2 proviruses previously reported capable of forming an infectious HML-2 variant are transcriptionally active in germ cell tissue. Our study furthermore shows that Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data are insufficient to describe transcriptional activity of HML-2 and other HERV loci in tissues of interest. Conclusion: Our, to date, largest-scale study reveals in greater detail expression patterns of individual HML-2 loci in human tissues of clinical interest. Moreover, large-scale, specialized studies are indicated to better comprehend transcriptional activity and regulation of HERVs. We thus emphasize the need for a specialized HERV Transcriptome Project.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: BMC Genomics
Volume: 9
Number: 354
Publisher: BioMed Central; Springer
Place of Publication: London; Berlin; Heidelberg
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2016 12:08
Date: 2008
ISSN: 1471-2164
Page Range: pp. 1-17
Faculties / Institutes: Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim > Medizinische Klinik - Lehrstuhl für Innere Medizin III
Medizinische Fakultät Heidelberg > Department for Infectiology
Subjects: 570 Life sciences
610 Medical sciences Medicine
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