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Das Vivekadarpana : Textanalyse und Erläuterungen zur Philosophie und praktischen Erlösungslehre der Nâthayogîs in Mahârâshtra

Reinelt, Kurt Joachim

English Title: The Vivekadarpana : Scriptural Analysis and Commentary on the Philosophy and the Redemptive Teachings of the Nâthayogîs in Mahârâshtra

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Abstract

Zur Zeit des indischen Mittelalters wanderten in weiten Teilen Indiens (Nordindien, Mahârâshtra, Bengalen) und Tibets tantrische Mystiker umher, die Nâthas, Nâthayogîs oder Nâthasiddhas genannt wurden. Sie praktizierten und lehrten hatha- und kundalinî-yoga und hatten großen Einfluss auf das religiöse Leben der Menschen. Die vorliegende Dissertation untersucht die Lehren und Praktiken dieser Nâthayogîs. Als Textgrundlage dient hierbei ein Werk aus dem ca. 13. Jahrhundert und zwar das Vivekadarpana, 'Der Spiegel der unterscheidenden Betrachtung'. Eine der Besonderheiten des Vivekadarpanas besteht darin, dass es nicht, wie die meisten anderen bekannten Werke der Nâthas in Sanskrit, sondern in Alt-Marâthi, und zudem in einer Geheimschrift bzw. kodierten Schrift verfasst ist. Ein weiteres Merkmal ist sein eklektischer Charakter. Lehren aus unterschiedlichen philosophischen Schulen, Konzepte und Praktiken diverser tantrischer und yogischer Traditionen, sowie viele mythologische Vorstellungen wurden in diesem Werk zusammengetragen. Es enthält kein als vollständig zu bezeichnendes, aber doch ein sehr umfangreiches philosophisches Lehrgebäude. Die behandelten Themen sind u.a. 'das Absolute Bewußtsein', 'die Einzelseele', 'der feinstoffliche Körper', 'die Mikro-Makrokosmos-Korrelation', 'die Guru-Schüler-Beziehung', 'der Siddha', 'der Hatha-Yoga'. Da sich das Vivekadarpana an den sâdhaka, den praktizierenden yogî, richtet, ist es jedoch nicht nur ein philosophisches Werk, denn nach Auffassung der Nâthayogîs vermittelt Information allein noch keine Erkenntnis oder Einsicht, ganz zu schweigen von einer ontologischen Transformation des jîva zu Shiva, bzw. des Menschen zum höchsten, allumfassenden Bewußtsein, dem angestrebten Ziel der Nâthayogîs. Daher ist das Vivekadarpana auch ein praktisches Yoga-Lehrbuch, in dem Ratschläge und Anweisungen zur yogasâdhanâ ihren Platz haben.

Translation of abstract (English)

During the Middle Ages in India, wandering mystics roamed through large parts of the subcontinent (North India, Mahârâshtra and Bengal) as well as Tibet. Those mendicants are known as Nâthas, Nâthayogîs or Nâthasiddhas. Practicing and teaching hatha- and kundalinî-yoga, they had a significant influence on people´s spiritual life. This dissertation presents a study of the Nâthayogis´ teachings as well as spiritual practices. The Vivekadarpana or 'Mirror of Discriminating Reflexion', a text from the 13th century, serves as basis for the study. One of the characteristics of the Vivekadarpana is, that it is not only composed in Old-Marathi - in that respect, it holds an exceptional position among the Nâthas´ texts, which are mostly written in Sanskrit - but also written in a secret or coded script. Another interesting aspect of the Vivekadarpana is its eclecticism. Teachings from different philosophical systems, concepts of thinking, mythological ideas as well as spiritual practices of diverse tantric and yogic backgrounds have been collected here. Although it doesn´t constitute a comprehensive philosophical doctrinal system, it still contains a considerable range of teachings. Topics mentioned among others are: 'the absolute consciousness', 'the individual soul', 'the subtle body', 'the micro-macro cosmos correlation', 'the guru-disciple relationship', 'the siddha' and 'the hatha-yoga'. Since the Vivekadarpana is aimed at the sâdhaka, the practicing yogî, it is not only a philosophical text. According to the Nâthayogîs, information alone does not lead to knowledge or a deeper insight, let alone to an ontological transformation from jîva to Shiva, from a human being to the highest, all-encompassing consciousness, which is the goal and highest aspiration of the Nâthayogîs. Therefore, the Vivekadarpana is also a practical yoga handbook which gives ample consideration to clear instructions and advice for people following yogasâdhanâ.

Item Type: Dissertation
Supervisor: Kiehnle, Dr. habil. Catharina
Date of thesis defense: 10 May 2001
Date Deposited: 17 May 2002 00:00
Date: 2000
Faculties / Institutes: Service facilities > Südasien (Sondersammelgebiet
Service facilities > South Asia Institute (SAI)
Subjects: 000 Generalities, Science
Controlled Keywords: Kundalini-Yoga, Maharashtra, Schiwaismus, Siddha, Tantrismus
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hatha-Yoga , Marathi , Natha , Trika , YogiKashmir Shaivism , Kundalini , Natha , Shaivism , Tantrism
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