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Extrastriatal changes in patients with late-onset glutaric aciduria type I highlight the risk of long-term neurotoxicity

Boy, Nikolas ; Heringer, Jana ; Brackmann, Renate ; Bodamer, Olaf ; Seitz, Angelika ; Kölker, Stefan ; Harting, Inga

In: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 12 (2017), Nr. 77. pp. 1-13. ISSN 1750-1172

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Download (4MB) | Lizenz: Creative Commons LizenzvertragExtrastriatal changes in patients with late-onset glutaric aciduria type I highlight the risk of long-term neurotoxicity by Boy, Nikolas ; Heringer, Jana ; Brackmann, Renate ; Bodamer, Olaf ; Seitz, Angelika ; Kölker, Stefan ; Harting, Inga underlies the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Germany

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Abstract

Background: Without neonatal initiation of treatment, 80–90% of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) develop striatal injury during the first six years of life resulting in a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder. Onset of motor symptoms may be acute following encephalopathic crisis or insidious without apparent crisis. Additionally, so-called late-onset GA1 has been described in single patients diagnosed after the age of 6 years. With the aim of better characterizing and understanding late-onset GA1 we analyzed clinical findings, biochemical phenotype, and MRI changes of eight late-onset patients and compared these to eight control patients over the age of 6 years with early diagnosis and start of treatment. Results: No late-onset or control patient had either dystonia or striatal lesions on MRI. All late-onset (8/8) patients were high excretors, but only four of eight control patients. Two of eight late-onset patients were diagnosed after the age of 60 years, presenting with dementia, tremor, and epilepsy, while six were diagnosed before the age of 30 years: Three were asymptomatic mothers identified by following a positive screening result in their newborns and three had non-specific general symptoms, one with additional mild neurological deficits. Frontotemporal hypoplasia and white matter changes were present in all eight and subependymal lesions in six late-onset patients. At comparable age a greater proportion of late-onset patients had (non-specific) clinical symptoms and possibly subependymal nodules compared to control patients, in particular in comparison to the four clinically and MR-wise asymptomatic low-excreting control patients. Conclusions: While clinical findings are non-specific, frontotemporal hypoplasia and subependymal nodules are characteristic MRI findings of late-onset GA1 and should trigger diagnostic investigation for this rare disease. Apart from their apparent non-susceptibility for striatal injury despite lack of treatment, patients with late-onset GA1 are not categorically different from early treated control patients. Differences between late-onset patients and early treated control patients most likely reflect greater cumulative neurotoxicity in individuals remaining undiagnosed and untreated for years, even decades as well as the higher long-term risk of high excretors for intracerebral accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites compared to low excretors.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Volume: 12
Number: 77
Publisher: BioMed Central
Place of Publication: London
Date Deposited: 26 Apr 2017 09:07
Date: 2017
ISSN: 1750-1172
Page Range: pp. 1-13
Faculties / Institutes: Medizinische Fakultät Heidelberg > Universitätskinderklinik
Medizinische Fakultät Heidelberg > Neurologische Universitätsklinik
Subjects: 610 Medical sciences Medicine
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