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Development and validation of a prognostic model to predict the prognosis of patients who underwent chemotherapy and resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a large international population-based cohort study

Huang, Lei ; Balavarca, Yesilda ; van der Geest, Lydia ; Lemmens, Valery ; Van Eycken, Liesbet ; De Schutter, Harlinde ; Johannesen, Tom B. ; Zadnik, Vesna ; Primic-Žakelj, Maja ; Mägi, Margit ; Grützmann, Robert ; Besselink, Marc G. ; Schrotz-King, Petra ; Brenner, Hermann ; Jansen, Lina

In: BMC Medicine, 17 (2019), Nr. 66. pp. 1-16. ISSN 1472-6882

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Background: Pancreatic cancer (PaC) remains extremely lethal worldwide even after resection. PaC resection rates are low, making prognostic studies in resected PaC difficult. This large international population-based study aimed at exploring factors associated with survival in patients with resected TNM stage I–II PaC receiving chemotherapy and at developing and internationally validating a survival-predicting model.

Methods: Data of stage I–II PaC patients resected and receiving chemotherapy in 2003–2014 were obtained from the national cancer registries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and Norway, and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 Program. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to investigate the associations of patient and tumor characteristics with overall survival, and analysis was performed in each country respectively without pooling. Prognostic factors remaining after backward selection in SEER-18 were used to build a nomogram, which was subjected to bootstrap internal validation and external validation using the European datasets.

Results: A total of 11,837 resected PaC patients were analyzed, with median survival time of 18–23 months and 3-year survival rates of 21–31%. In the main analysis, patient age, tumor T stage, N stage, and differentiation were associated with survival across most countries, with country-specific association patterns and strengths. However, tumor location was mostly not significantly associated with survival. Resection margin, hospital type, tumor size, positive and harvested lymph node number, lymph node ratio, and comorbidity number were associated with survival in certain countries where the information was available. A median survival time- and 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival probability-predictive nomogram incorporating the backward-selected variables in the main analysis was established. It fits each European national cohort similarly well. Calibration curves showed very good agreement between nomogram-prediction and actual observation. The concordance index of the nomogram (0.60) was significantly higher than that of the T and N stage-based model (0.56) for predicting survival.

Conclusions: In these large international population-based cohorts, patients with resected PaC receiving chemotherapy have distinct characteristics independently associated with survival, with country-specific patterns and strengths. A robust benchmark population-based survival-predicting model is established and internationally validated. Like previous models predicting survival in resected PaC, our nomogram performs modestly.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: BMC Medicine
Volume: 17
Number: 66
Publisher: BioMed Central
Place of Publication: London
Date Deposited: 24 May 2019 13:19
Date: 2019
ISSN: 1472-6882
Page Range: pp. 1-16
Faculties / Institutes: Service facilities > German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)
Subjects: 610 Medical sciences Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pancreatic cancer, Resection, Chemotherapy, Survival, Prognostic factors, Benchmark population-based nomogram, International real-world cohort study,
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