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Udział warsztatów francuskich w gotyckim przełomie w Europie Środkowej w latach 1233–1248 (na przykładzie Niemiec i Polski)

Skibiński, Szczęsny

English Title: French lodges impact on Gothic breakthrought in Central Europe, 1233-1248 (on the examples of Germany and Poland)

In: Rocznik Historii Sztuki, 30 (2005), pp. 59-84

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Translation of abstract (English)

The dynamic development of the Gothic architecture that lasted throughout the latter half of the 12th century in France for a surprisingly long time did not influence the territories east of France. In Poland the first Gothic buildings made their initial appearance in the 1240s. Their best example is a well preserved choir of the Wroclaw Cathedral, while in the two Poznan churches – the Cathedral and Dominican Church – only the elements unearthed during excavation works. The churches were built in the times when throughout Central Europe there was a widespread reception of Gothic architecture called "opus francigenum": Liebfrauenkirche in Trier (after 1233), St Elisabeth Church in Marburg (since 1235), the aisles of the Strasbourg Cathedral (after 1241), the west choir of the Naumburg Cathedral (after 1242), the choir of the Cistercian Church at Pforta (after 1251), the Cologne Cathedral (since 1248). The widespread appearance in Central Europe of the French techniques was induced by a radical restriction of building investments in France, caused by King Saint Louis’ preparations to and then his leadership of the two crusades (1248 and 1270) to the Holy Land. This hampered numerous building works and triggered massive translocation of the building lodges first within France, and soon outside its borders. Due to a three-year interruption in building of the Reims Cathedral (1233-1236), a part of the Reims lodge went to Paris, where initiated the first phase of court style at the building sites of the King’s Chapel at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and church at Saint-Denis. A role played by the Reims masters in the introduction of stone sculpture during the last stage of building at the Bamberg Cathedral is well recognised. Also Liebfrauenkirche in Trier, St. Elisabeth Church in Marburg and a change of lodge at a Cistercian Church in Haina should be associated with the crisis at Reims. Holding back works at Saint-Denis from 1241 indicates a shift of major part of this lodge to Strasburg to build the aisles. The departure from Paris of the lodge of Reims provenance gave place for a lodge that emerged from the Amiens lodge, which in 1244 take up the building of Sainte-Chapelle. The stonemason lodge that came to Poland derived its forms from the first phase of the Paris courtly style, yet it managed to familiarize with the style of decoration of the Sainte-Chapelle. The comparison of Gothic buildings on the Rhine river, throughout whole Germany as far as Silesia and Great Poland (Wielkopolska) indicates that here came several, or more, masons specialising in architectural detail but not an architect trained in the circle of French cathedral architecture.

Document type: Article
Version: Secondary publication
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2010 11:06
Faculties / Institutes: Research Project, Working Group > Individuals
DDC-classification: Architecture
Controlled Subjects: Frankreich, Architektur, Rezeption, Architektur, Polen, Deutschland, Geschichte 1233-1248
Subject (classification): Architecture
Countries/Regions: East Europe
Collection: ART-Dok Central and Eastern Europe