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Stochastic dynamics of virus capsid formation: direct versus hierarchical self-assembly

Baschek, Johanna E. ; Klein, Heinrich C. ; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

In: BMC Biophysics, 5 (2012), Nr. 22. pp. 1-18. ISSN 2046-1682

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Background: In order to replicate within their cellular host, many viruses have developed self-assembly strategies for their capsids which are sufficiently robust as to be reconstituted in vitro. Mathematical models for virus self-assembly usually assume that the bonds leading to cluster formation have constant reactivity over the time course of assembly (direct assembly). In some cases, however, binding sites between the capsomers have been reported to be activated during the self-assembly process (hierarchical assembly). Results: In order to study possible advantages of such hierarchical schemes for icosahedral virus capsid assembly, we use Brownian dynamics simulations of a patchy particle model that allows us to switch binding sites on and off during assembly. For T1 viruses, we implement a hierarchical assembly scheme where inter-capsomer bonds become active only if a complete pentamer has been assembled. We find direct assembly to be favorable for reversible bonds allowing for repeated structural reorganizations, while hierarchical assembly is favorable for strong bonds with small dissociation rate, as this situation is less prone to kinetic trapping. However, at the same time it is more vulnerable to monomer starvation during the final phase. Increasing the number of initial monomers does have only a weak effect on these general features. The differences between the two assembly schemes become more pronounced for more complex virus geometries, as shown here for T3 viruses, which assemble through homogeneous pentamers and heterogeneous hexamers in the hierarchical scheme. In order to complement the simulations for this more complicated case, we introduce a master equation approach that agrees well with the simulation results. Conclusions: Our analysis shows for which molecular parameters hierarchical assembly schemes can outperform direct ones and suggests that viruses with high bond stability might prefer hierarchical assembly schemes. These insights increase our physical understanding of an essential biological process, with many interesting potential applications in medicine and materials science.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: BMC Biophysics
Volume: 5
Number: 22
Publisher: BioMed Central
Place of Publication: London
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2016 08:48
Date: 2012
ISSN: 2046-1682
Page Range: pp. 1-18
Faculties / Institutes: The Faculty of Physics and Astronomy > Institute for Theoretical Physics
Service facilities > Bioquant
Subjects: 530 Physics
570 Life sciences
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