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The developmental sex-biased expression of genes escaping X chromosome inactivation across mammals

Studer, Tania

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Abstract

In mammals, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) re-establishes the dosage balance between male and female gene expression levels. However, up to a third of the X-linked genes escape this phenomenon with varying degrees of consistency across tissues, cell lines, or individuals. Here, I take advantage of a new extensive developmental dataset for several organs and species to explore the developmental dimension of sex chromosomes expression levels. I find that only a small fraction of genes escaping XCI show a consistent female overexpression across development, organs, and species. The consistently sex-biased genes are almost exclusively either directly involved in the establishment of XCI, or are protein-coding genes with a broadly expressed Y homolog. The conservation of the sex-bias of these genes across species suggests that they might be responsible for the evolution of escape from XCI. I also present and test a model of allelic contribution to the total expression levels of X-linked genes using marsupial bulk tissue RNA sequencing data. Finally, I describe my contribution to a study of sex-biased micro-RNAs in mammals.

Item Type: Dissertation
Supervisor: Kaessmann, Prof. Dr. Henrik
Place of Publication: Universität Heidelberg
Date of thesis defense: 5 December 2018
Date Deposited: 17 Dec 2018 12:12
Date: 2018
Faculties / Institutes: The Faculty of Bio Sciences > Dean's Office of the Faculty of Bio Sciences
Subjects: 000 Generalities, Science
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
570 Life sciences
590 Zoological sciences
Controlled Keywords: Geschlechtschromosom, Genexpression, Evolutionäre Entwicklungsbiologie, Säugetiere
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sex-chromosomes, Gene expression Evo-devo Development Mammals Sex-bias
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